The Sustainable Development Goals represent a comprehensive framework comprising 17 goals and 169 targets established for the international community to help eradicate poverty and inequality, achieve social inclusion, halt global climate change and build a world with enough resources for our descendants to live in dignity in the next 15 years. The Goals are measures aimed at ensuring equitable progress in the three pillars of sustainable development: economic growth, social inclusion and environmental protection. They are global and universal, but allow for differentiated implementation depending on the local context.

On September 25, 2015, 193 Member States of the United Nations made commitments to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. The decision is captured in the document entitled “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development”.

Goal 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere.

Poverty is the lack of income and resources for sustainable livelihoods. Poverty has many dimensions: hunger, malnutrition, unemployment, limited access to education, social exclusion and high vulnerability to natural disasters and diseases, and the inability to make decisions that enable people to live productive lives.

More than 700 million people still live in extreme poverty, with 70 % residing in countries in South Asia and Africa. But even in the developed world, more than 30 million children live below the poverty line. That means these people can expect to receive less than $ 1.90 a day. In 2015, extreme poverty is defined by this threshold.

Ending global poverty is possible. The economist Jeffrey Sachs in his book “The End of Poverty” estimated that the total cost of poverty eradication actions around the world in the next 20 years will be about 175 billion dollars. This is 0.7 % of the total income of the world's richest countries.

Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.

Natural disasters, crop failures, wars and mismanagement of resources cause food shortages around the world. hose experiencing hunger are unable to work, are susceptible to illness, struggle to increase their earnings, and are unable to enhance their living standards. Presently, about 800 million people suffer from hunger and malnutrition. Most of them live in developing countries, but there is no continent where the problem is completely solved. To eliminate hunger by 2030, investments in rural and urban areas and social protection will be needed to give the poor access to food and improve their living conditions. The estimated additional annual cost to achieve this goal is approximately $ 267 billion, according to World Bank assessments.

Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.

Healthy individuals form the cornerstone of a robust economy. Despite progress in healthcare and well-being, disparities in accessing healthcare persist.

Annually, 6 million children perish before reaching their fifth birthday, and only half of women in developing regions have access to necessary healthcare services.

Achieving universal health coverage demands substantial effort, yet the benefits far exceed the costs. Allocating one billion dollars towards expanding vaccination programs targeting influenza, pneumonia, and other preventable diseases could save a million children's lives annually.

Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.

Education serves as a fundamental component in attaining numerous Sustainable Development Goals.

It acts as a catalyst for reducing inequality and fostering tolerance among individuals, enabling them to lead healthier and more secure lives. These factors collectively contribute to the establishment of peaceful communities.

In developing nations, 91 % of children are enrolled in primary education. However, 57 million children remain out of school, with over half residing in Africa.

Furthermore, on a global scale, 103 million young individuals lack basic literacy skills, with women accounting for more than 60 % of this population.